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Alpine Clover [2021]

The three Trifoliums shown on this page are found in open alpine meadows from about 11,500 feet elevation to 13,000 feet. Trifolium attenuatum and Trifolium dasyphyllum grow to five or six inches tall and have long flower stems with multiple flowers in the head; Trifolium nanum is but an inch or so high and flowers are single, barely above the matted leaves. Although all three plants are low to the ground and have small flowers, they are quite visible because they grow in widely spreading mats -- T. attenuatum and T. dasyphyllum to over several feet in diameter, T. nanum to half that.

alpine clover

Trifolium nanum hugs the alpine ground with numerous, tiny, three-parted leaves in a tight mat, but it has relatively few flowers, which are, however, large for the size of the plant and always in attractive masses. Almost all the greenery in the top photo belongs to one plant which might eventually grow to about a foot in diameter.

A Bombus balteatus bumblebee collects nectar from an alpine clover (Trifolium parryi). The buzzes of bees flying from flower to flower tells scientists how much pollination the clover population is getting over time.More about this imageRecent studies indicate that declines in wild and managed bee populations threaten the pollination of flowers in more than 85% of flowering plants and 75% of agricultural crops worldwide. Widespread and effective monitoring of bee populations could lead to better management, but tracking bees is difficult and costly.Now, a research team led by the University of Missouri has developed an inexpensive acoustic listening system using data from small microphones in the field to monitor bees in flight. Their study shows how farmers could use the technology to monitor pollination and increase food production.Candace Galen, a professor of biological science in the MU College of Arts and Science, says the causes of pollinator decline are complex and include a number of factors including diminishing flower resources, habitat loss, climate change, increased disease incidence and exposure to pesticides, thereby making it difficult to pinpoint the driving forces of decline."For more than 100 years, scientists have used sonic vibrations to monitor birds, bats, frogs and insects," says Galen. "We wanted to test the potential for remote monitoring programs that use acoustics to track bee flight activities."For the study, the team first analyzed the characteristic frequencies of bee buzzes in the lab. Next, they moved out in the field to estimate bumblebee activity. They placed small microphones -- attached to data storage devices in three locations on Pennsylvania Mountain in Colorado to collected acoustic survey data.This data was used to develop algorithms that identified and quantified the number of bee buzzes in each location and compared that data to visual surveys the team made in the field. In almost every instance, the acoustic surveys were more sensitive, picking up more buzzing bees."Eavesdropping on the acoustic signatures of bee flights tells the story of bee activity and pollination services," Galen says. "Farmers may be able to use the exact methods to monitor pollination of their orchards and vegetable crops and head off pollination deficits. Finally, global 'citizen scientists' could get involved, monitoring bees in their backyards."This project was supported by a grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (grant DGE 1045322).Read more about this research in the MU news story Bee buzzes could help determine how to save their decreasing population. (Date image taken: 2014; date originally posted to NSF Multimedia Gallery: Dec. 7, 2017)

There are 95 species of clover in the United States and dwarf clover is the runt of the bunch. But, this plant justifies its small stature with where it manages to grow. Dwarf clover is at home on mountain tops in the Rocky Mountains from Montana to northern New Mexico. It is often found at elevations above 11,000 feet, living in the seemingly barren alpine tundra above the elevation where trees will grow.

Harsh growing conditions characterize the alpine tundra environment. Winters have long periods of sub-zero temperatures, blizzards, and high winds. The summers are short, freezing temperatures are possible at any time, there are harsh drying winds, and the sunlight is intense. The soils tend to be rocky, dry, and nutrient poor.

Like many alpine tundra plants, dwarf clover needs to be seen close-up to appreciate its beauty. But, a summer visit to the alpine tundra is exhilarating and well worth the effort to see alpine clover and its other ground-hugging tundra friends.

Alpine Clover Trifolium alpinum (Fr. Trefle alpin) is a low growing plant found above 1000 metres. The flowers are apparently scented and the roots taste mildly of liquorice. It is believed to be widely distributed because of troops marching through various alpine areas since ancient times.

This central and south European species occurs in the Alps, inthe subalpine and alpine zone. It prefers soils that are limedeficient,comparatively nutrient-deficient, deep, warm and not too wet. On lime-rich soilsit only grows on a thick humus layer. It is typically found in Narduuspastures and poor alpine grasslands.

In the Alps, it is common between 1 700 and 2 500 m, sometimesbelow the timber line. Because of its suitability for sites with a low pH aswell as its deep taproot, alpine clover is an important component (and nitrogensupplier) of grassland mixtures that are appropriate to the habitat.Nutrient-rich forage with high digestibility.

Nitrogen: alpine clover meets its nitrogen requirementsby means of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. As for all legumes, fertilization with20-30 kg/N is recommended for open sowing in order to stimulate juveniledevelopment.

The lucky discovery of four-leaf clovers in the sub-arctic could prove valuable to future plant breeding research. googletag.cmd.push(function() googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); ); Students at Aberystwyth University's Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) made some lucky discoveries on a recent fieldtrip to the village of Abisko in the Swedish Lapland to study Arctic Ecology.

In addition to seeing several Arctic-alpine plant species the students also found several red clover plants (Trifolium pratense L.). These were growing in disturbed areas near paths, houses and the rail road. On closer examination of the area, the students made the exciting discovery that a surprising number of plants had four, five and even six leaves.

IBERS is an internationally recognised research and teaching centre and a world leader in grass and clover breeding and has an active red clover breeding programme that seeks to improve dry matter yield and resistance to pests and diseases.

Over a century ago, the iron ore industry brought with it the construction of a railway through the village which, interestingly was built by many workers from Ireland, leading some to question whether the Emerald Isle is the original source of Abisko's clover plants.

Ecology student Kate Gwynn said: "We have seen some amazing fauna and flora in this area but did not expect to see four leaf clovers in the sub-arctic region". Plant Biology student Hattie Roberts added "This was quite a find for us given what IBERS does!"

Plant breeder and leader of the IBERS Plant Breeding Group, Professor Athole Marshall said: "Four leaf clovers are of course very uncommon and we do not fully understand whether the fourth leaf is caused by genetic or environmental factors or a combination of both.

Clearly these particular plants are existing under extreme environmental conditions and it would be interesting to see how they got there and how they are related to red clover germplasm in other parts of the country and more widely across Europe.

270ROCKY MOUNTAIN REVIEW RAISING THE GRAIN I am waiting for the wood to dry before sanding. I have raised the grain with water. Now I must sand it down, raise it again, sand it down, raise it again. Finally the wood will dry smoothly even after wetting. It is slow work waiting. Sanding must be done carefully, each board tested, my finger making sure no stubborn grain is heedlessly passed over. If the wood is not smooth varnish, brushed on after staining, will be rough also. On my workbench, half unheard, the radio plays country-western music. Voices sing of homecomings, homemade wine, remembered eyes. Behind the barn my mare, fat, unshod, rests on three legs. She dozes lazily switching flies, nibbling half-heartedly at the long pasture grass. It has been a dry summer. Now in the late fall days the prairie hay has cured uncut on the stem. It is nourishing but she thinks not tasty. She wrinkles her lips breathing a long sigh, contented, remembering white clover and alpine meadows. JAMES K. FOLSOM ... 041b061a72

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